Saqqara is an enormous, ancient burial ground in Egypt, helping as the necropolis for the oldest Egyptian capital, Memphis. Saqqara is the ancient complete stone building complex.The 16 Egyptian kings built pyramids at Saqqara, which are now in various states of preservation or disrepair. Executives added private funeral monuments to this necropolis during the wholepharaonic period. During Ptolemaic and Roman timesfor more than 3,000 years, it remained significant complex for non-royal burials and cult ceremonies. It is believed by some scholars that the name Saqqara is not glean from the ancient Egyptian funerary god Sokar, but from a supposed local Berber Tribe called BeniSaqqar.
The Fifth and Sixth Dynasty pyramids are not built of huge stone, but with a core consisting of debris. They are thus less well conserve than the world renowned pyramids built by the Fourth Dynasty kings at Giza. During the second half of the Old Kingdom, under the Fifth and Sixth Dynasties, Saqqara was again the royal burial ground. Unas, the last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty, was the first king to decorate the chambers in his pyramid with Pyramid Texts. It was tradition for courtiers during the Old Kingdom to be buried in mastaba tombs close to the pyramid of their king.
Prince Khaemweset, son of Pharaoh Ramesses II, made maintenances to buildings at Saqqara. He restored the Pyramid of Unas and added an engraving to its south face to honor the restoration. He enlarged the Serapeum, the burial site of the mummified Apis bulls, and was later buried in the vault. In the periods after the New Kingdom, when several cities in the Delta served as capital of Egypt, Saqqara remained in use as a burial ground for nobles. Moreover the area became a significant destination for pilgrims to a number of cult centers.